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Krakatau, 27 August 1883 27 August 2009

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'View of Krakatoa during the earlier stage of the eruption. From a photograph taken on Sunday the 27th of May, 1883' - plate I from The Eruption of Krakatoa and Subsequent Phenomena (London, 1888)

It was 126 years ago today, on 27 August 1883, that the most recent large-scale eruption of Krakatau (or Krakatoa, if you prefer) reached its final cataclysmic stage. An appropriate day, then, to draw the attention of interested readers to the fact that possibly the most detailed contemporary scientific study of the eruption, the Royal Society’s 500-page report on The Eruption of Krakatoa and Subsequent Phenomena (1888), is freely available to download from the Internet Archive.

Fgures 2 and 3 from The Eruption of Krakatoa and Subsequent Phenomena (London, 1888)

The book has been fully digitized by Google, but it is a curious fact that Google chooses not to make the full text of this out-of-copyright publication available via Google Books. It is, however, freely available to read and download (along with many other texts that Google has digitized but has seemingly decided to keep to itself) through its inclusion in the Internet Archive.

The Eruption of Krakatoa and Subsequent Phenomena can be accessed via this page at the Internet Archive. The PDF of the entire book (27.2 MB) cannot be found via the ‘Google.com’ link given on that page, but can be downloaded through this direct link.

The Volcanism Blog

Increase in activity at Anak Krakatau reported 19 June 2009

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‘Mt Anak Krakatau’s eruptions record tremendous increase’ is the headline at Indonesia’s Antara news agency, on a lengthy story reporting a rise in the numbers of earthquakes and ‘small eruptions’ at the volcano, which is in the Sunda Strait between the islands of Sumatra and Java:

At least 828 small eruptions were recorded to have happened on the volcano with 63 volcanic quakes, 434 tremors and 366 times of emission in the past six days, said Anto Prambudi, head of Mt Anak Krakatau Monitoring Post in Pasauran village, Serang district, Banten province, on Wednesday. According to him, in the past five days the volcanic quake of Mt Anak Krakatau showed a rise in its activity. In fact, the frequency of the quake and small eruptions took place in every three minutes interval.

People living near Anak Krakatau, which is constructing itself over the remains of the Krakatau volcano destroyed in the famous eruption of 1883, have been reporting for some time that activity levels have been rising, and on 6 May this year the Indonesian volcanological authorities raised the alert level to the second-highest level of Orange (Siaga), where it remains. The Antara report describes frequent earthquakes, ‘white smoke’ rising to 800 metres above the crater, hazardous gas emissions, and ‘glowing lava like gravel’ with a temperature of 600°C:

Officials at the Anak Krakatau Monitong Post in Pasauran village, Cinangka sub district, Serang district, said the volcano’s activity was on Friday marked by 182 eruptions coupled with 11 volcanic quakes, eight deep volcanic tremors, 54 shallow volcanic shocks, 44 tremors, and it also spewed smoke 29 times. But none of the phenomena posed a direct threat to human life.

There are reports of some local inhabitants leaving the area with their families in alarm at the volcano’s rise in activity. At the moment the authorities have imposed a three-kilometre radius exclusion zone, but no evacuations have been officially ordered.

For all our Indonesia coverage: Indonesia « The Volcanism Blog.

News
Mt Anak Krakatau’s eruptions record tremendous increase – Antara News, 18 June 2009

Information
Global Volcanism Program: Krakatau – summary information for Krakatau (0602-00=)
Pusat Vulkanologi & Mitigasi Bencana Geologi – News and information portal for the Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Indonesia

The Volcanism Blog

Anak Krakatau alert level increased 7 May 2009

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Quick update … it seems recent reports from local inhabitants of increased activity at Krakatau may have been correct – the alert level for the volcano has just been raised by the Indonesian authorities from Yellow (Waspada) to Orange (Siaga). Dr Klemetti has information and links at Eruptions: Alert level raised at Anak Krakatau.

For all our Indonesia coverage: Indonesia « The Volcanism Blog.

The Volcanism Blog

Volcanic activity in Indonesia: Kerinci and Krakatau 21 April 2009

Posted by admin in activity reports, Indonesia, Kerinci, Krakatau.
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News of volcanoes stirring in Indonesia, one of the most volcanically active parts of the globe.

Mount Kerinci, Sumatra, Indonesia (picture by Tom Casadevall, USGS, 1987)
Mount Kerinci, Sumatra, Indonesia. Picture by Tom Casadevall, USGS, 1987.

Mount Kerinci on Sumatra, the highest volcano in Indonesia (3800 metres a.s.l.) and one of the most active, is reported to be producing small explosions, ‘discharges of dust’ and ‘repeated tremors’ and threatening the populated area at the foot of the mountain. The Kerinci Observation Post has warned local people to wear masks when going out of doors. The Indonesian Volcanological Authority alert level for Kerinci is thus far still at the second-lowest level of Yellow (Waspada).

Anak Krakatau, the young volcano emerging in the Sunda Strait on the site of the famous 1883 ‘Krakatoa’ eruption, is apparently causing alarm among local people, some of whom have been leaving their homes in the belief that a major eruption is imminent. The volcano has been producing explosions and eruptions of ash, but the volcanological authorities say that the activity is not unusual and people should not panic. The alert level for Anak Krakatau remains unchanged at Yellow (Waspada). There seems to be a mismatch between what the scientists say Anak Krakatau is up to and what local people perceive: Dr Erik Klemetti has more on this at Eruptions.

For all our Indonesia coverage: Indonesia « The Volcanism Blog.

News
Sumatran volcano shows intensified volcanic activityThe Jakarta Post, 21 April 2009
Lampung residents told not to panic as Mt. Anak Krakatau spews ashThe Jakarta Post, 21 April 2009

Information
Global Volcanism Program: Kerinci – summary information for Kerinci (0601-17=)
Global Volcanism Program: Krakatau – summary information for Krakatau (0602-00=)

The Volcanism Blog

Anak Krakatau activity 16 June 2008

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The tireless volcano watchers at Activolcans report that activity continues at Anak Krakatau (‘child of Krakatau’), perhaps at slightly lower intensity than recently; low-level eruptive activity has been pretty much continual since October 2007, and the volcano has been at level III (orange) alert since April. Anak Krakatau is a young volcanic cone constructed within the caldera left by the 1883 Krakatau eruption. Since its emergence in 1927 it has been the site of frequent eruptions.

Anak Krakatau is continuously monitored by the Indonesia volcanological authorities, who have a website dedicated to the volcano which reports real-time data: KrakMon Online.

Information
Global Volcanism Program: Krakatau – summary information for Krakatau (0602-00=)
Pusat Vulkanologi & Mitigasi Bencana Geologi – News and information portal for the Directorate of Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Indonesia
KrakMon Online – Krakatau monitoring online

The Volcanism Blog