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SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 7-13 July 2010 14 July 2010

Posted by admin in activity reports, Bagana, Caribbean, Dukono, Ecuador, eruptions, Guatemala, Hawaii, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Karymsky, Kilauea, Kirishima, Kliuchevskoi, Pacaya, Papua New Guinea, Russia, Sakura-jima, Shiveluch, Soufrière Hills, Stromboli, Tungurahua, Ulawun, United States, Weekly Volcanic Activity Reports.
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Some highlights from the last week of volcanic activity courtesy the Global Volcanism Program and Sally Kuhn Sennert, including more seismic restlessness and ash venting at Soufrière Hills and some big bangs at Stromboli:

  • Soufrière Hills: seismic swarms, ash venting, ashfall, some rumbling and roaring
  • Stromboli: two major explosive events at the ever-active ‘Lighthouse of the Mediterranean’
  • Pacaya: an explosion produces ash and tephra fall, provoking small-scale evacuations

SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 7-13 July 2010

Click on the map for a larger version (1280 x 898 pixels).

The Smithsonian Institution/United States Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for 7-13 July 2010 is now available on the Global Volcanism Program website. The following is a summary and not a substitute for the full report.

New activity/unrest: Soufrière Hills (Montserrat), Stromboli (Italy).

Ongoing activity: Bagana (Papua New Guinea), Dukono (Indonesia), Karymsky (Russia), Kilauea (Hawaii USA), Kirishima (Japan), Kliuchevskoi (Russia), Pacaya (Guatemala), Sakura-jima (Japan), Shiveluch (Russia), Tungurahua (Ecuador), Ulawun (Papua New Guinea).

Note: a.s.l. = ‘above sea level’.


SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 16-22 June 2010 24 June 2010

Posted by admin in activity reports, Batu Tara, Caribbean, Colombia, Dukono, Ecuador, eruptions, Etna, Gaua, Gorely, Guatemala, Hawaii, Indonesia, Ioto, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Karymsky, Kilauea, Kliuchevskoi, Nevado del Huila, Pacaya, Papua New Guinea, Russia, Sakura-jima, Shiveluch, Soufrière Hills, Tiatia, Tungurahua, Ulawun, United States, Vanuatu, Weekly Volcanic Activity Reports.
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Some highlights from the last week of volcanic activity reported by the Global Volcanism Program:

  • Etna: hot landslides generate ash clouds
  • Nevado del Huila: seismicity increases, sulphur dioxide plumes detected
  • Tungurahua: steam-and-ash plumes, daily ashfall
  • Kliuchevskoi: strombolian activity
  • Sakura-jima: 550 eruptions so far in 2010, a new record for this hyper-active volcano

SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 16-22 June 2010

Click on the map for a larger version (1280 x 898 pixels).

The Smithsonian Institution/United States Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for 16-22 June 2010 is now available on the Global Volcanism Program website. The following is a summary and not a substitute for the full report.

New activity/unrest: Etna (Italy), Gorely (Russia), Ioto (Japan), Nevado del Huila (Colombia), Pacaya (Guatemala), Tiatia (Russia), Tungurahua (Ecuador), Ulawun (Papua New Guinea).

Ongoing activity: Batu Tara (Indonesia), Dukono (Indonesia), Gaua (Vanuatu), Karymsky (Russia), Kilauea (Hawaii USA), Kliuchevskoi (Russia), Sakura-jima (Japan), Shiveluch (Russia), Soufrière Hills (Montserrat).


Italy ponders volcanic threat from Ischia 28 April 2010

Posted by admin in Ischia, Italy, natural hazards, volcano monitoring, volcanoes.
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At the northern end of the Gulf of Naples in southern Italy lies the island of Ischia, a complex volcanic edifice with a long history of violent activity that last erupted in 1302 AD. It has a population of around 60,000 and is a popular tourist destination. Now the head of Italy’s civil protection service, Guido Bertolaso, is sounding alarm bells about the potential volcanic threat from Ischia in the Italian media (only a few weeks after his Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia counterpart Dr Enzo Boschi did the same thing over Mount Marsili).

During a press conference in which he discussed the range of volcanic risks faced by Italy, Bertolaso described Vesuvius ‘the biggest civil protection problem in our country’, but pointed the finger at Ischia as potentially the more immediate threat: ‘If I were to say what is potentially the volcano with a bullet in the chamber, I would say that it is not Vesuvius but the island of Ischia’. He said that since the eruption of 1302 the height of Mount Epomeo, the highest point of the island (which is a volcanic horst) has increased by 800 metres [EDIT, this should almost certainly be 300 metres, see comments below. FURTHER EDIT, the uplift is to ~780 metres a.s.l., but that’s over the past 33,000 years – see note at the end of this post.] and that the magma chamber is ‘reloading’. However, whereas everybody knows that Vesuvius is an active volcano there is not the same perception of Ischia: this is clearly something that Bertolaso wants to change.

Bertolaso also discussed the need for better monitoring of active undersea volcanoes, and floated the idea of a Europe-wide volcanic ash monitoring network, in the wake of the disruption caused by Eyjafjallajökull.

(INGV’s monitoring page for Ischia is here. There is no sign of any impending eruption at Ischia, as Bertolaso made clear in his remarks.)

NOTE: Ischia uplift. Poli et al (1989) note that ‘the rapid uplift of the central horst of Mount Epomeo … from about -200 m to 700 m occurred after 33,000 y. B.P., mostly in the last 20,000 years’ (p. 332). Poli et al also anticipated that the main potential volcanic hazard at Ischia was landslides and mudflows consequent on this rapid uplift, rather than the direct effects of volcanic activity, with future eruptions likely to be effusive rather than explosive, although there remains the possibility of ‘phreatic or phreatomagmatic crisis’ (p. 334). S. Poli et al, ‘Time dimension in the geochemical approach and hazard estimates of a volcanic area: the Isle of Ischia case (Italy)’, Journal of Volcanology & Geothermal Research, 36 (1989), pp. 327-335 [doi:10.1016/0377-0273(89)90077-2].

Bertolaso: allarme eruzione a IschiaCorriere della Sera, 27 April 2010
Bertolaso lancia l’allarme su Ischia ‘Un vulcano con il colpo in canna’La Repubblica, 27 April 2010
Vulcani: Bertolaso, parte il monitoraggio di quelli sommersi – AGI, 27 April 2010
Bertolaso propone sistema monitoraggio Ue per ceneri vulcaniche – Reuters, 27 April 2010
Ischia volcano eruption concerns – Press Association, 28 April 2010
Italy says Ischia volcano, near Naples, could blowThe Statesman, 28 April 2010

Global Volcanism Program: Ischia – information about Ischia (0101-03=) from the GVP
Osservatorio Vesuviano: Ischia – Ischia monitoring information from the INGV’s Vesuvius Observatory

The Volcanism Blog

Marsili seamount: tsunami threat for Southern Italy? 30 March 2010

Posted by admin in Italy, Marsili, natural hazards, submarine volcanism, volcano monitoring, volcanoes.
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Mount Marsili is a 3000-metre high seamount beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea, 150 km south-west of Naples. Marsili is active and recent research has indicated signs of restlessness (see this 2006 paper in PDF), although the risks of any dangerous eruptive activity are very slight). In an interview with the Italian newspaper Corriere della Sera, the director of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), Dr Enzo Boschi, has reminded everyone that Marsili is active and that there is a potential threat of an eruption/collapse generating a tsunami that would threaten Southern Italy:

It could happen tomorrow. The latest research says that the volcanic edifice is not strong and its walls are fragile. Furthermore we have measured the magma chamber that has formed in recent years and it is of large dimensions. All this tells us that the volcano is active and could erupt unexpectedly.

According to the article, observations indicate that hydrothermal emissions from vents around Marsili have become more intense recently, and evidence of landslides discovered by the oceanographic research vessel Urania last February ‘indicate an instability impossible to ignore’. Dr Boschi warns that a flank collapse at Marsili ‘would displace millions of cubic metres of material, which would be capable of generating a wave of great power’. Marsili is currently unmonitored, observes Dr Boschi: ‘A network of seismometers should be installed around the edifice, connected on land to a volcano monitoring centre. But this is beyond the budget’.

And it seems reasonable to suggest that the budget is what this article is actually all about. Despite the new attention this story will bring to Marsili as it gets cut-and-pasted around the web, there is nothing substantially new here, as Aldo Piombino notes in a very comprehensive post published on his blog today. No new activity lies behind this report, and nor has the potential threat, such as it is, changed in any way. The novelty, he observes, is in public attention being drawn to the need to monitor Marsili, which has been invisible in every sense as far as the Italian public is concerned.

Undersea volcanoes tend to be out of sight and out of mind. Writing in 2008, Aldo Piombino called Marsili ‘one of the least-known of the huge volcanic systems of Europe’, and argued that more attention must be paid to this active and potentially very destructive underwater giant:

It is statistically very unlikely that in our lifetimes we will see an explosion of Marsili, and even less likely that we will see a tsunami caused by a landslide on its flanks, but it is to be hoped that it will be placed under close seismic and geochemical surveillance, as with other active Italian volcanoes. I believe that it is necessary for civil protection and for science that one of the largest volcanoes in Europe is better understood.

Boris Behncke of the INGV discussed Marsili’s activity in the course of his Q&A on Dr Klemetti’s Eruptions blog last year, but also remarked that monitoring Marsili was not a priority for the INGV [UPDATE: in fact that is not what Boris meant. He meant that Marsili has not been a priority for the Italian authorities, Civil Defence, and the Italian public, rather than the INGV – see his comment at Eruptions]. Dr Boschi’s comments today would seem to indicate that that has changed. Aldo Piombino observes today that the technology is available within the INGV to monitor Marsili directly from the seabed using new broadband seismometers transmitting to land-based monitoring stations, and supports Dr Boschi’s call for full monitoring of the volcano. But that cannot happen without money, which is more likely to be forthcoming if the potential (and real but, it must be emphasized again, very remote) dangers of a tsunami-generating collapse at Marsili are stressed – hence the Corriere della Sera article.

So, it seems that a push has begun within Italian volcanology to get Marsili wired up for continuous and comprehensive monitoring. Let us hope it succeeds.

UPDATE 30 March 2010: Dr Erik Klemetti has more on Marsili at Eruptions, and Boris Behncke, himself of the INGV (Dr Boschi is Boris’s boss), has an illuminating comment here.

Torna a far paura il vulcano sommerso nel TirrenoCorriere della Sera, 29 March 2010
Undersea volcano threatens southern Italy: report – AFP, 29 March 2010
Il Monte Marsili, un gigantesco vulcano nascosto dalle profondità del Mar Tirreno – scienzeedintorni, 4 April 2008
Finalmente alla ribalta il più grande fra i vulcani sommersi nel Tirreno, il Monte Marsili – scienzeedintorni, 29 March 2010

The Volcanism Blog

Another volcanologist Q&A at Eruptions: Boris Behncke 30 October 2009

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Following on from the fascinating Chaitén question and answer session he set up at Eruptions with Dr Jonathan Castro, Erik Klemetti has organized a second volcanologist Q&A session, this time with Boris Behncke of the Italian National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology in Catania.

Boris is a long-established and very good friend of this blog and of Eruptions, and volcano-followers here and elsewhere know him well as someone who is always ready to answer questions and share his expertise both on Etna and Italian volcanoes and on volcanological issues, both scientific and cultural, more widely. So, get your questions together for Boris Behncke and head over to Eruptions!

The Volcanism Blog

Permian caldera discovered in Italian Alps 22 September 2009

Posted by admin in calderas, current research, Italy.
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The remains of a caldera that erupted during the Permian (290-248 million years b.p.) have been identified in the Sesia Valley in the Italian Alps. Local uplift has exposed the magmatic plumbing to the depth of 25km, five times deeper than scientists have been able to study previously:

A fossil supervolcano has been discovered in the Italian Alps’ Sesia Valley by a team led by James E. Quick, a geology professor at Southern Methodist University. The discovery will advance scientific understanding of active supervolcanoes, like Yellowstone, which is the second-largest supervolcano in the world and which last erupted 630,000 years ago.

A rare uplift of the Earth’s crust in the Sesia Valley reveals for the first time the actual ‘plumbing’ of a supervolcano from the surface to the source of the magma deep within the Earth, according to a new research article reporting the discovery. The uplift reveals to an unprecedented depth of 25 kilometers the tracks and trails of the magma as it moved through the Earth’s crust.

The discovery was described by Prof Quick and his colleagues in Geology, July 2009 (click here for the abstract), and SMU have a press release, ‘Research Spotlight: the “Rosetta Stone” of supervolcanoes’.

(What would science reporters do without the term ‘supervolcano’? And where there’s the term ‘supervolcano’, the name ‘Yellowstone’ is rarely far behind.)

Supervolcano ‘Rosetta Stone’ discovered in Italian Alps – redOrbit, 21 September 2009

The Volcanism Blog

SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 27 May-2 June 2009 3 June 2009

Posted by admin in activity reports, Bagana, Batu Tara, Caribbean, Chaitén, Chile, Colombia, Dukono, Ecuador, eruptions, Etna, Hawaii, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Karangetang, Kilauea, Llaima, Makian, Nevado del Huila, Papua New Guinea, Popocatépetl, Rabaul, Redoubt, Russia, Sakura-jima, Shiveluch, Slamet, Soufrière Hills, Tungurahua, Ubinas, United States.
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SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 27 May-2 June 2009

The Smithsonian Institution/United States Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report covering 27 May-2 June 2009 is available on the Global Volcanism Program website. The following is a summary and not a substitute for the full report.

New activity: Karangetang (Indonesia), Makian (Indonesia), Slamet (Indonesia).

Ongoing activity: Bagana (Papua New Guinea), Batu Tara (Indonesia), Chaitén (Chile), Dukono (Indonesia), Etna (Italy), Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Llaima (Chile), Nevado del Huila (Colombia), Popocatépetl (Mexico), Rabaul (Papua New Guinea), Redoubt (Alaska, USA), Sakura-jima (Japan), Shiveluch (Russia), Soufrière Hills (Montserrat), Tungurahua (Ecuador), Ubinas (Peru).


Karangetang (Indonesia). 30-31 May, seismicity increased and tremor was detected. Diffuse white plumes rose 10-50 m and crater incandescence was seen on 30 May, white emissions rose 100 m above Utama Crater on 31 May, incandescent material descended as far as 2.3 m, mostly down S flank.

Makian (Indonesia). Seismicity, particularly tremor, increased during 28 May-2 June.

Slamet (Indonesia). 27 May, ash plume rose to 4.3 km a.s.l., possible plume rose to 6.1 km.


Bagana (Papua New Guinea). 2 June, ash plume to 2.4 km a.s.l., drifted 75 km W.

Batu Tara (Indonesia). 27 May-2 June, ash plumes to 2.4 km a.s.l., drifted 25-75 km NW, W and SW; thermal anomaly detected 29 May.

Chaitén (Chile). 20-27 May, gas-and-ash plumes rose 1.5 km from the growing lava dome complex and collapses caused by instable slopes generated block-and-ash flows. Seismicity remained elevated with large hybrid earthquakes at 5-9 km beneath the western part of the dome complex. 28-29 May and 1-2 June, ash plumes rose to 1.8-2.4 km a.s.l.

Dukono (Indonesia). 27-28 May, ash plumes to 3 km a.s.l., drifted 55-110 km NE.

Etna (Italy). 25-31 May, the NW-SE-trending fissure E of the summit craters continued to produce active lava flows, There was degassing from the Northeast Crater, the NW and SE Bocca Nuova vents, from the E flank of the Southeast Crater and at summit fumarolic fields.

Kilauea (Hawaii, USA). 27 May-2 June, lava continued to flow SE through lava tubes to the Waikupanaha ocean entry and (until 31 May) the Kupapa’u ocean entry. Active surface lava flows were also detected on 30 May. The Halema’uma’u crater vent continued to produce a mainly white plume with an occasional brown tinge, that drifted mainly SW. A molten lava pool near the base of the cavity produced varying incandescence.

Llaima (Chile). A 2-square-kilometre area of elevated temperatures was observed on the E flank during an overflight on 1 June. Small areas of gas emission, a small cone in formation about 800 m below the crater and a 300-metre-long E-W-trending fissure 200 m from the rim of the main crater, emitting brown ash and steam plumes, were also observed. There were weak fumaroles at the summit crater.

Nevado del Huila (Colombia). A seismic swarm took place on 28 May that included magnitude 4 and 4.8 earthquakes. On 31 May an episode of tremor occurred associated with an ash emission, and a further pulse of tremor was detected on 2 June.

Popocatépetl (Mexico). 27 May-2 June, emissions of steam and gas observed, with slight amounts of ash during 27-29 May.

Rabaul (Papua New Guinea). 21-28 May, white and occasionally blue plumes from Tavurvur cone rose 1 km above the crater and incandescence from the summit crater was observed at night.

Redoubt (Alaska, USA). Seismicity remained low but above background 27 May-2 June. Lava dome growth continued.

Sakura-jima (Japan). An explosion on 30 May produced a plume to 4.6 km a.s.l. that drifted SE. On 31 May an ash plume rose to 3 km a.s.l., and on 1 June eruptions produced plumes to 2.1-3.4 km a.s.l, some of which drifted S.

Shiveluch (Russia). Seismic activity was above background levels 22-29 May; steam-and-gas emissions were observed 21-23 May, and plumes with small amounts of ash rose to 4 km a.s.l. on 22 May. A daily thermal anomaly was detected over the lava dome.

Soufrière Hills (Montserrat). Activity during 22-29 May was at a low level: a possible small explosion followed by a rockfall occurred on 23 May, and a small pyroclastic flow descended 1 km E on 24 May, producing an ash plume that drifted W.

Tungurahua (Ecuador). Strombolian activity was observed at night during 26-28 May, followed by nocturnal incandescence at the crater until 1 June. On 27-29 and 31 May thermal anomalies were detected. There was the usual range of noises: explosions, cannonades and roars. Steam-and-ash plumes rose to 7 km a.s.l. and drifted W and SW on 28 May, and ashfall was reported 28-30 May.

Ubinas (Peru). On 29 and 31 May eruptions produced ash plumes to 5.5-6.7 km a.s.l. that drifted NE and SW. A bluish gas plume with some ash content was reported on 1 June, and gas-and-ash plumes rose 0.9-1.5 km a.s.l. and drifted SE following an explosion on 2 June.


The foregoing is a summary of the Smithsonian Institution/United States Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report covering 27 May-2 June 2009. It is provided for information only, and is based on but not a substitute for the full report, which comes with its own criteria and disclaimers. for the full report, which comes with its own criteria and disclaimers. The map base is derived from the Smithsonian Institution/USGS/US Naval Research Laboratory This Dynamic Planet website.

For all our coverage of the SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Reports: Weekly Volcanic Activity Reports « The Volcanism Blog.

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Saturday Volcano Art: Bacchus and Vesuvius 17 May 2009

Posted by admin in Italy, Saturday volcano art, Vesuvius.
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Vesuvius: Roman wall painting from the House of the Centenary, Pompeii (1st century BC/1st century AD)

Did Pliny the Elder, perhaps the most notable casualty of the 79 AD eruption of Vesuvius, know that the mountain looming over the Bay of Naples was a volcano? There is no hint of it in his Natural History, where in Book III he simply mentions in passing that Pompeii, Herculaneum and Neapolis are near Mount Vesuvius (III, 62). Later in the same book (III, 92-3) he writes of the volcanic nature of the Aeolian Islands, where sulphur was mined, but says nothing about volcanic activity in Campania.

The volcanic nature of Vesuvius was recognized by the Greek geographer Strabo who wrote in Book V, Chapter IV of his Geography (published around 7 BC) that the summit of Vesuvius ‘shows pore-like cavities in masses of rock that are soot-coloured on the surface, these masses of rock looking as though they had been eaten out by fire; and hence one might infer that in earlier times this district was on fire and had craters of fire, and then, because the fuel gave out, was quenched’. The Romans seem to have been unaware of Strabo’s work, but references to Vesuvius’s once ‘fiery’ nature also appear in Vitruvius’s De Architectura (Book II, Chapter VI), written around 25 BC, and in the Bibliotheca Historica of Diodorus Siculus (Book IV, Chapter I). Contemporaries did not connect the earthquakes that shook the area around the Bay of Naples in 62 and 63 with any volcanic activity. Vesuvius, for the people living around it in the first century AD, was a green, forested and vine-clad mountain, its crater silent and overgrown.

This is the Vesuvius shown in the wall-painting above, which comes from the ‘House of the Centenary’ in the southern part of Pompeii. The volcano is shown as tall, steep-sided, and green with vegetation. The figure of Bacchus, god of wine, stands before the mountain clad in grapes and holding a vine-leaf-capped staff. Wine drips from a glass in his hand, to be eagerly lapped up by an attendant panther (Bacchus is often represented with panthers having been, according to some legends, nursed by the animals when young). In the lower portion of the image is a serpent representing the agathodaemon, the spirit of fertility that inhabited the local fields and vineyards.

Roman landscape wall-paintings expressed ideas of beauty and fertility infused with sacred meaning. This image of Vesuvius thus works on several levels simultaneously, representing the natural landscape as harmoniously beautiful, richly fertile, and charged with supernatural as well as natural potency. Mount Vesuvius, guarded by the vine-god Bacchus and the agathodaemon vegetation-spirit, is here the central image in a visual and spiritual celebration of the local landscape and its fertility. The volcano is peaceful and unthreatening, its tranquil vine-clad slopes giving no hint of the destructive powers that lurk within.

The eruption of 79 AD unleashed pyroclastic flows that engulfed the House of the Centenary along with the rest of the Roman towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum — and incidentally preserved this serene wall-painting of the destroyer for posterity.

[This week’s Saturday Volcano Art has come out on Sunday. Apologies for the delay.]

For all ‘Saturday volcano art’ articles: Saturday volcano art « The Volcanism Blog.

The Volcanism Blog

A look at Vesuvius: closely-watched volcano 22 April 2009

Posted by admin in Italy, natural hazards, Vesuvius, volcano monitoring.
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Naples and Vesuvius, August 2003

Under the headline ‘the world’s most closely watched volcano’, AFP have published an interesting article, with pictures, about the monitoring of Vesuvius.

The article describes how sensors continuously watch various aspects of the volcano’s activity, and that information is passed to the Vesuvius Observatory in Naples (the world’s oldest volcanological observatory), where it is constantly monitored and assessed. If a major eruption appears to be in prospect, the current emergency plan calls for 600,000 people from the 18 towns and cities within the 15-kilometre-radius ‘red zone’ around Vesuvius to be evacuated.

This would take about two weeks.

Vesuvius, the world’s most closely watched volcano – AFP, 22 April 2009

The Volcanism Blog

SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 18 March 2009 – 24 March 2009 26 March 2009

Posted by admin in activity reports, Alaska, Batu Tara, Caribbean, Chaitén, Chile, Colombia, Dempo, eruptions, Etna, Galeras, Gamkonora, Hawaii, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Kamchatka, Karymsky, Kilauea, Koryaksky, Kuchinoerabo-jima, Lewotobi, Okmok, Pacific, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Popocatépetl, Rabaul, Redoubt, Russia, Sakura-jima, Shiveluch, Soufrière Hills, Tonga, Tungurahua, Ubinas, United States, Weekly Volcanic Activity Reports.
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SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 18 March 2009 - 24 March 2009

The Smithsonian Institution/United States Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report covering 18 March 2009 to 24 March 2009 is now available on the Global Volcanism Program website. The following is a summary and not a substitute for the full report.

New activity: Galeras (Colombia), Hunga Tonga-Hunga Ha’apai (Tonga), Koryaksky (Kamchatka, Russia), Redoubt (Alaska, USA).

Ongoing activity: Batu Tara (Komba Island, Indonesia), Chaitén (Chile), Dempo (Sumatra, Indonesia), Etna (Italy), Gamkonora (Halmahera, Indonesia), Karymsky (Kamchatka, Russia), Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Kuchinoerabu-jima (Japan), Lewotobi (Flores Island, Indonesia), Okmok (Alaska, USA), Popocatépetl (Mexico), Rabaul (Papua New Guinea), Sakura-jima (Japan), Shiveluch (Kamchatka, Russia), Soufrière Hills (Montserrat), Tungurahua (Ecuador), Ubinas (Peru).