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Chaitén: new NASA satellite images 7 May 2008

Posted by admin in Chaitén, Chile, eruptions, images, natural hazards.
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Two new satellite images of Chaitén in eruption have been published at the NASA Earth Observatory Natural Hazards web site. The images were captured on 5 May 2008 by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite and show the eruption plume from the volcano extending due east for 650 kilometres across Chile and Argentina, with a grey coating of ash visible on the landscape beneath.

Chaitén volcano erupts - natural colour image (NASA)

Above: Chaitén volcano erupts – natural colour image (NASA).

Chaitén volcano erupts - infrared image (NASA)

Above: Chaitén volcano erupts – infrared image (NASA).

These images have also been published at SpaceRef.com. Credit from original source: NASA images courtesy Jeff Schmaltz, MODIS Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC.

For all our Chaitén coverage: Chaitén << The Volcanism Blog

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Image of the Chaitén lava dome 7 May 2008

Posted by admin in activity reports, Chaitén, Chile, eruptions, images, natural hazards, Uncategorized.
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The Volcanism Blog owes many grateful thanks to Werner Keller of the Villarrica and Llaima Volcanoes Visual Observation Project (POVI) in Chile for this picture of the Chaitén volcano lava dome, taken on 3 May 2008, the second day of the current eruption.

Chaitén lava dome from the south. (C) ONEMI.

Above: the picture, taken from the south of the volcano, shows the currently active vent releasing its plume of ash and gas. The vent is located on the southern flank of the lava dome that occupies the 3.5-kilometre-wide caldera. The image, provided by Werner Keller, is copyright ONEMI.

The images below, taken from Google Earth and depicting the situation before the eruption, show the general situation of the volcano and the surrounding area. North is to the top in both images.

Chaitén caldera (Google Earth)

Above: close-up of the Chaitén caldera (from Google Earth). The currently erupting vent is on the lower, southern side of the lava dome, a little south-west of south, which also happens to be where the caldera rim is breached by a river.

general view (Google Earth)

Above: Chaitén town is a mere 10 kilometres from the volcano, and the river valley running between the two offers an ideal path for lava flows or pyroclastic surges to follow. The yellow line on the left is the coastline. On the right (i.e. to the east) is the massive volcano Minchinmávida, which was the first suspect when the eruption was reported last week.

For all our Chaitén coverage: Chaitén « The Volcanism Blog.

Information
Global Volcanism Program: Chaitén – summary information for Chaitén (1508-41)
ONEMI, Oficina Nacional de Emergencia – Chilean government emergencies office (Spanish)
SERNAGEOMIN – volcanology information from the Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería, Chile (Spanish)

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Dramatic satellite image of Chaitén in eruption 5 May 2008

Posted by admin in Chaitén, Chile, eruptions, images, natural hazards.
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The NASA Earth Observatory Natural Hazards site frequently publishes satellite images of volcanic activity: Kilauea, Karymsky, Rabaul and Anatahan are among the volcanoes recently featured. There’s been nothing so far, however, to match the stunning image of Chaitén volcano in eruption which has just been released. As it’s a public domain image I’ve taken the liberty of reproducing it, slightly reduced, below, and excerpting a close-up of Chaitén volcano itself from the full-size version of the image.

The picture was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Terra satellite at 16:35 UTC on 3 May 2008. The plume can be seen stretching south-east from Chaitén itself (in the top-left of the image), right across the width of Chile and Argentina and into the South Atlantic Ocean.

To see the original image on the NASA Earth Observatory web site, click here. A large version of the image can be accessed directly by clicking here (jpeg, 3200 x 2400 pixels, 1.07MB).

Chaiten volcano in eruption. NASA Earth Observatory image.

Above: the eruption plume from Chaitén can be seen flowing south-east away from the volcano across the whole width of South America, to disperse over Golfo San Jorge on the Argentine coast. (NASA Earth Observatory image: source)

Chaiten volcano in eruption. NASA Earth Observatory image.

Above: a close-up, taken from NASA’s original large image, of the Chaitén region, showing the eruption plume ascending from the caldera and blowing away to the south-east. The thin dark line on the left is the Pacific coast of Chile; the similar line on the right is the Chile/Argentina border. (NASA Earth Observatory image: source)

For all our Chaitén coverage: Chaitén << The Volcanism Blog

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Satellite image of Chaitén, 2 May 2008 4 May 2008

Posted by admin in Chaitén, Chile, eruptions, images, volcano monitoring.
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The US National Atmospheric and Oceanic Administration (NOAA) is responsible for an outfit called Operational Significant Event Imagery (OSEI), which ‘produces high-resolution, detailed imagery of significant environmental events which are visible in remotely-sensed data available at the NOAA Science Center in Suitland, Maryland’.

The current OSEI image of the day at their web site is a satellite image of Chaitén volcano in eruption on 2 May 2008. This image is in the public domain. To access the full image directly (jpeg, 278KB, 1024 x 800 pixels), click here.

I’ve uploaded two cropped and reduced versions below, intended to show the extent of the Chaitén ash cloud. I’ve added a scale, which was missing in the original, and tried to mark out the extent of the ash cloud in the second image.

NOAA/NASA/OSEI.

Above: Satellite image of the volcano Chaitén in eruption, taken on 2 May 2008 at 16:28 GMT. The ash cloud extends far to the north-east and south-east of the volcano, and stretches about 500km east into Argentina.

NOAA/NASA/OSEI.

Above: The approximate extent of the main ash cloud is marked by the yellow border and shading.

A selection of pictures of the current Chaitén eruption, with links to some videos, can be found here: Erupción del volcán Chaitén.

For all our Chaitén coverage: Chaitén << The Volcanism Blog

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The ‘eight volcano types’ at Andrew’s Geology Blog 13 April 2008

Posted by admin in blogs, images, volcanology, web resources.
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Andrew Alden has a typically well-organized and informative article at his Geology Blog on ‘The Eight Volcano Types’, illustrated with excellent clear photographs of particular examples of each type. ‘It appears’, he writes, ‘that there are eight basic volcano structures to be found on land, on Earth. There are others under the sea and on other planets, but you aren’t likely to come upon one’. The eight types in question are: lava dome, cinder or scoria cone, maar, tuff ring, tuya or subglacial volcano, stratovolcano, shield volcano, caldera.

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Volcanoes, Basalt, and the Discovery of Geological Time: an online exhibition 30 March 2008

Posted by admin in history of volcanology, images, volcano culture, volcanological works, web resources.
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‘Vulcan’s Forge and Fingal’s Cave: Volcanoes, Basalt, and the Discovery of Geological Time’ was an exhibition presented at the Linda Hall Library, Kansas City, Missouri, from October 2003 to March 2004. Why tell you about an exhibition that closed four years ago? Because, thanks to the LHL’s enlightened and imaginative approach to the internet, it left a wonderful website behind it.

The exhibition presented over sixty rare books and journals from the period 1650-1830, representing changing perceptions of basalt and the significance of the understanding of basalt’s igneous (as opposed to aqueous) nature and of the phenomenon of volcanism for the growing recognition of the immensity of geological time. The online exhibition is divided into seventeen richly-illustrated sections which display sixty-six printed items dealing with basalt and volcanism, many of them spectacular and beautiful as well as fascinating. The presentation of these items is crystal-clear and immaculate, the texts are informative and thought-provoking, and the organization and navigation is straightforward.

Vesuvius and EtnaBasalt along the RhineDerbyshire Toadstone … it’s all here. Highly recommended.

Information
Vulcan’s Forge and Fingal’s Cave – entrance page for the online exhibition
Online Exhibitions – Linda Hall Library – list of the online exhibitions available at the LHL
Linda Hall Library of Science, Engineering & Technology – main page for the LHL

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Tungurahua photo essay 12 January 2008

Posted by admin in Ecuador, images, Tungurahua.
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A photo essay of Tungurahua images has been published by CBSNews.com, under the title ‘Ready to Erupt’. The eight pictures, taken from 8 to 10 January 2008, show the eruption of ash, gas and steam, and strombolian activity at the summit crater.

Ready to Erupt: Ecuador’s Tungurahua volcano poised for a major eruption in matter of days or weeks – CBSNews.com, 12 January 2008

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