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SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 5-11 January 2011 13 January 2011

Posted by admin in activity reports, Bulusan, Caribbean, Dukono, Ecuador, eruptions, Etna, Fuego, Guatemala, Hawaii, Indonesia, Japan, Kamchatka, Karymsky, Kilauea, Kizimen, Manam, Merapi, Nicaragua, Pacaya, Reventador, Russia, Sakura-jima, San Cristóbal, Santa María, Shiveluch, Soufrière Hills, Suwanose-jima, Tungurahua, United States, Weekly Volcanic Activity Reports.
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Here is the Weekly Volcanic Activity Report covering 5 to 11 January 2010, issued by the Smithsonian Institution and United States Geological Survey and compiled by Sally Kuhn Sennert. Some selected highlights:

  • Etna: still restless, with weak emissions, strombolian activity and degassing
  • Kizimen: eruptive activity continues with continuous emissions to 6-8 km a.s.l. and ashfall
  • Fuego: explosions, incandescence, ash plumes and ashfall
  • Merapi: lahars cause floods and damage on Merapi’s flanks

The maps accompanying this report will be available shortly – apologies for the delay.

The Smithsonian Institution/United States Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for 5-11 January 2011 is now available on the Global Volcanism Program website. The following is a summary and not a substitute for the full report.

New activity/unrest: Etna (Italy), Kizimen (Russia), Manam (Papua New Guinea).

Ongoing activity: Bulusan (Philippines), Dukono (Indonesia), Fuego (Guatemala), Karymsky (Russia), Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Merapi (Indonesia), Pacaya (Guatemala), Reventador (Ecuador), Sakura-jima (Japan), San Cristóbal (Nicaragua), Santa María (Guatemala), Shiveluch (Russia), Soufrière Hills (Montserrat), Suwanose-jima (Japan), Tungurahua (Ecuador).

NEW ACTIVITY

Etna (Italy). After a few hours of quiescence on the evening of 3 January, very weak emissions of incandescent material (probably mostly hot gas with little or no solid material) resumed from the pit crater located on the lower E flank of Etna’s Southeast Crater cone. Later that evening intense incandescence from the pit crater was reported by observers in the village of S. Alfio on the E flank of Etna. The emissions continued on 4 January at a rate of 4-6 events per hour, producing small plumes that appeared as thermal anomalies in thermal video footage. Activity ceased in the afternoon. Very weak emissions of incandescent material (probably again mostly hot gas) were observed on 5 January at the same rate as the previous day. A camera recorded white vapor plumes occasionally accompanied by some greyish-brown ash. Weak, intermittent incandescence from the pit crater was observed at night during 5-6 January. Emissions on 6 January occurred at a frequency of 3-4 events per hour, producing small plumes seen in thermal camera footage. That same day, intense degassing occurred from the W vent of Bocca Nuova (BN-1), and from the Northeast Crater, where pulsating emissions produced mushroom-shaped vapor plumes. Starting in the late evening of 11 January, the seismic network recorded a slight increase in volcanic tremor amplitude. The amplitude peaked early on 12 January, and the source of the tremor shifted from a location N of the Northeast Crater towards the Southeast Crater. Weak Strombolian activity from the pit crater accompanied these changes on 11 January, and gradually became more intense on 12 January.

Kizimen (Russia). KVERT reported that ash emissions from Kizimen had been essentially continuous during 31 December-7 January, producing ash plumes mostly below altitudes of 6-8 km (20,000-26,000 ft) a.s.l. reported by pilots or observed in satellite imagery. Seismicity remained high but variable and volcanic tremor continued to be recorded. A thermal anomaly over the volcano was observed in satellite imagery. On 5 January ash plumes drifted more than 500 km ENE. Ashfall was reported on the Komandorsky Islands, 350-500 km E. The Tokyo VAAC reported that ash continued to be observed in satellite imagery on 5 Janaury. According to information from KVERT and analyses of satellite imagery, a possible eruption on 6 January produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 3.7 km (12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. Subsequent satellite images that same day showed continuing ash emissions. Ash plumes drifted NW on 9 January, and drifted NW again on 11 January, at an altitude of 2.7 km (9,000 ft) a.s.l. The Colour Code remained at Red.

Manam (Papua New Guinea). RVO reported that during 5-6 January low roaring from Manam’s South Crater was heard and weak but steady crater incandescence was observed at night. Diffuse blue vapour was emitted from South Crater on 6 January. During 6-8 January white vapour rose from Main Crater and incandescence from both craters was observed at night. Diffuse brown ash plumes occasionally rose from South Crater on 7 January. The next day the Alert Level was lowered from Stage 3 to Stage 2. During 8-9 January Main Crater emitted white vapour and South Crater produced occasional grey ash plumes that drifted to the SE part of the island. Emissions from Main Crater turned to grey on 10 January. White-to-blue vapour plumes rose from South Crater. Both craters were incandescent at night during 8-10 January.

ONGOING ACTIVITY

Bulusan (Philippines). During 4-10 January, PHIVOLCS reported that 2-8 daily volcanic earthquakes at Bulusan were detected by the seismic network. Clouds usually prevented observations, but on 5 or 6 January steam was seen rising from a known NW thermal vent. The Tokyo VAAC reported that on 6 and 7 January ash was observed according to notices from the Manila airport (RPLL). The Alert Level remained at 1 (on a scale of 0-5).

Dukono (Indonesia). Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 5-7 January ash plumes from Dukono rose to altitudes of 2.4-3.7 km (8,000-12,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 65-130 km W.

Fuego (Guatemala). INSIVUMEH reported that during 5-6 January explosions from Fuego produced ash plumes that rose 500-800 m above the crater and drifted 10 km S and SW. The explosions caused windows and roofs to rattle in areas 6 km away. Fine ashfall was reported in communities downwind including Panimaché (6 km SW), Morelia (7 km SW), and Yepocapa (8 km WNW). Incandescence from the crater was observed at night. On 8 January, the Washington VAAC reported multiple gas-and-ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. were observed in satellite imagery. During 10-11 January INSIVUMEH again reported that explosions produced ash plumes that rose 500-800 m above the crater and shock waves that were detected as far away as 7 km. Plumes drifted 15 km W and block avalanches descended a few drainages.

Karymsky (Russia). KVERT reported that seismic activity at Karymsky was above background levels on 1 and 5 January, suggesting that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.8 km (12,500 ft) a.s.l. Seismic activity did not exceed background levels on the other days during 31 December-7 January. A thermal anomaly was detected daily in satellite imagery. An ash plume drifting 140 km SE was also seen in imagery on 2 January. Based on a pilot observation, the Tokyo VAAC reported that on 5 January an ash plume rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l.

Kilauea (Hawaii, USA). During 5-11 January, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema’uma’u crater circulated and remained mostly stable at approximately 120 m below the crater floor, periodically rising several meters higher. Nighttime incandescence was visible from the Jaggar Museum on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent that drifted SW, NE, and N deposited ash and fresh spatter nearby. At the east rift zone, lava that broke out of the Quarry tube at a saddle between two rootless shields around 610 m elevation, continued to advance in two branches, E and W. At the lowest elevation of the E branch lava advanced along Highway 130 near Kalapana. One part of the W branch entered the ocean on 6 January at a location about 2 km SW of the end of Highway 130. Lava flows fed by an 8-m-high cone on the N portion of the Pu’u ‘O’o crater floor covered and recovered the E crater floor. The web camera also recorded incandescence from a small fume-producing vent in the E wall of the crater. On 10 January the sides of the cone seemingly gave way and lava poured into two active flows that traveled toward the W portion of the crater floor.

Merapi (Indonesia). According to a news article, lahars on Merapi’s flanks that occurred on 3 and 9 January caused damage to houses, farms, and infrastructure in multiple villages in the Magelang district, 26 km WNW of Merapi. One death and one injury were reported. On 9 January, the Red Cross evacuated people trapped in their homes in the Sirihan village. An estimated 3,000 people live in the flooded area, but the number of people evacuated was unknown.

Pacaya (Guatemala). INSIVUMEH reported that during 5-6 January steam-and-gas plumes, white and blue in color, rose 200 m above Pacaya’s MacKenney cone. Seismic activity was consistent with gas emissions.

Reventador (Ecuador). Based on a pilot observation, the Washington VAAC reported that on 4 January an ash plume from Reventador rose to an altitude of 5.2 km (17,000 ft) a.s.l. Cloud cover prevented clear satellite observations of the volcano. A subsequent report stated that IG noted low seismicity, no reports of ashfall, and that satellite imagery showed no ash emissions

Sakura-jima (Japan). Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that during 7-8 January explosions from Sakura-jima produced plumes that rose to altitudes of 1.8-2.1 km (6,000-7,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E and SE. On 8 January, pilots reported that ash plumes rose to altitudes of 1.8-3 km (6,000-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE.

San Cristóbal (Nicaragua). Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 6 January a gas-and-steam plume from San Cristóbal, possibly containing ash, drifted 25 km SW. The VAAC noted a METAR weather notice stating that “smoke” was observed.

Santa María (Guatemala). INSIVUMEH reported that during 5-6 January explosions from Santa María’s Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 400-500 m above Caliente dome and drifted SW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 8 January a gas plume possibly containing ash drifted less than 30 km SSW. During 10-11 January, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions produced ash plumes that rose as high as 600 m above the dome and drifted SW and W. Avalanches descended the S and E flanks.

Shiveluch (Russia). KVERT reported that moderate seismic activity from Shiveluch was detected during 31 December-7 January. A bright thermal anomaly over the volcano was observed daily in satellite imagery. Seismic data showed that possible ash plumes rose to an altitude of 5 km (16,400 ft) a.s.l. on 2 January. That same day an explosion generated ash plumes that rose to an altitude of 8 km (26,000 ft) a.s.l. and were observed in satellite imagery drifting 92 km S. Moderate gas-and-steam activity was visually observed during 2 and 5-6 January. The Aviation Colour Code level remained at Orange.

Soufrière Hills (Montserrat). MVO reported that during 31 December 2010-7 January 2011 activity from the Soufrière Hills lava dome was at a low level. A small lahar descended the Belham valley (NW) on 5 January. Gas measurements on 6 January indicated that the ratio of hydrochloric acid to sulphur dioxide was 0.29, a ratio similar to those measured over the last few months and consistent with no lava extrusion. Helicopter observations that same day showed marked acid rain damage in the Spring (W) and Gingoes (SW) ghaut areas, up to 3 km from the lava dome. Cloudy weather prevented observations of the lava dome. The Hazard Level remained at 3.

Suwanose-jima (Japan). Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Suwanose-jima during 11-12 January. Details of a possible resulting plume were not reported.

Tengger Caldera (Indonesia). Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 30 December an ash plume from Tengger Caldera’s Bromo cone rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 95 km E.

Tungurahua (Ecuador). On 5 January IG reported that, after moderately-sized explosions during 24-25 December, activity at Tungurahua had decreased. IG noted that during this time seismicity decreased and explosions had not occurred, deflation was detected, sulphur dioxide emissions gradually reduced, and decreases in the amount of ash present in plumes was noted. Although cloudy weather often prevented observations during 5-11 January, steam plumes were occasionally observed and rose above the crater to low heights.

The foregoing is a summary of the Smithsonian Institution/United States Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report covering 5-11 January 2011. It is provided for information only, and is based on but not a substitute for the full report, which comes with its own criteria and disclaimers. The map base is derived from the Smithsonian Institution/USGS/US Naval Research Laboratory This Dynamic Planet website.

For all our coverage of the SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Reports: Weekly Volcanic Activity Reports « The Volcanism Blog.

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Comments

1. Guillermo - 19 January 2011

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2. caleb - 21 March 2011

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3. caleb - 21 March 2011

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