SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 27 October – 2 November 2010 4 November 2010Posted by admin in activity reports, Chile, Colima, Dukono, Ecuador, eruptions, Eyjafjöll, Fuego, Guatemala, Hawaii, Iceland, Indonesia, Japan, Kamchatka, Karymsky, Kilauea, Kliuchevskoi, Krakatau, Manam, Merapi, Pacific, Pagan, Papua New Guinea, Piton de la Fournaise, Planchón-Peteroa, Russia, Sakura-jima, Sangay, Santa María, Shiveluch, United States, Villarrica, Weekly Volcanic Activity Reports.
Tags: Global Volcanism Program
The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for 27 October to 2 November 2010 is compiled by Sally Kuhn Sennert and published by the Global Volcanism Program. Some selected highlights:
- Kliuchevskoi: ash plumes to 8-9 km altitude causing flight diversions
- Merapi: eruption continues with pyroclastic flows, plumes to more than 6 km altitude, ashfall
- Piton de la Fournaise: eruption continues, an active lava lake observed
- Eyjafjallajökull: the 2010 eruption is officially over, says scientist
Click on the map for a larger version (1280 x 898 pixels).
The Smithsonian Institution/United States Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for 27 October – 2 November 2010 is now available on the Global Volcanism Program website. The following is a summary and not a substitute for the full report.
- The current report: Weekly Volcanic Activity Report.
- Previous reports: Weekly Reports Archive.
- The SI/USGS map of volcanoes discussed this week.
New activity/unrest: Colima (Mexico), Kliuchevskoi (Russia), Krakatau (Indonesia), Merapi (Indonesia), Piton de la Fournaise (Réunion Island), Planchón-Peteroa (Chile), Shiveluch (Russia).
Ongoing activity: Dukono (Indonesia), Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland), Fuego (Guatemala), Karymsky (Russia), Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Manam (Papua New Guinea), Pagan (Mariana Islands), Sakura-jima (Japan), Sangay (Ecuador), Santa María (Guatemala), Villarrica (Chile).
Colima (Mexico). Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that an ash cloud from Colima drifted W on 28 October. [GVP: Colima]
Kliuchevskoi (Russia). KVERT reported that during 22-29 October seismic activity at Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and Strombolian activity was observed. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano and two lava flows descending the W and SW flanks from the summit crater. Ash plumes also detected in imagery drifted more than 2,300 km E. Ash plumes rose to altitudes of 8-9 km (26,200-29,500 ft) a.s.l. during 22-25 and 27 October. The Aviation Colour Code level remained at Red. A news article from 29 October stated that ash from Kliuchevskoi and Shiveluch caused area flight diversions. On 30 October explosive activity decreased along with the magnitude of volcanic tremor. Based on visual observations and analysis of satellite imagery, ash plumes rose to altitudes of 5-5.5 km (16,400-18,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 100 km SE. The Aviation Colour Code level was lowered to Orange. The Tokyo VAAC reported that, based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from KVERT, eruptions on 31 October and 2 November, and a possible eruption on 1 November produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 5.2-6.7 km (17,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. [GVP: Kliuchevskoi]
Krakatau (Indonesia). A news report on 2 November noted that the frequency of explosions from Anak Krakatau had slowly increased to 100 per day since 25 October. During 31 October-1 November there were 251 explosions recorded. [GVP: Krakatau]
Merapi (Indonesia) According to the Darwin VAAC, ground-based reports indicated an eruption from Merapi on 28 October. Cloud cover prevented satellite observations. CVGHM reported that two pyroclastic flows occurred on 30 October. According to a news article, ash fell in Yogyakarta, 30 km SSW, causing low visibility. CVGHM noted four pyroclastic flows the next day. On 1 November an eruption began mid-morning with a low-frequency earthquake and avalanches. About seven pyroclastic flows occurred during the next few hours, traveling SSE a maximum distance of 4 km. A gas-and-ash plume rose 1.5 km above the crater and drifted E and N. CVGHM recommended that evacuees from several communities within a 10-km radius should continue to stay in shelters or safe areas. The Darwin VAAC reported that a possible eruption on 1 November produced an ash plume that rose to an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l., according to ground-based reports, analyses of satellite imagery, and web camera views. On 2 November an ash plume was seen in satellite imagery drifting 75 km N at an altitude of 6.1 km (20,000 ft) a.s.l. News outlets noted diversions and cancellations of flights in and out of the Solo (40 km E) and Yogyakarta airports. The Alert Level remained at 4 (on a scale of 1-4). CVGHM reported 26 pyroclastic flows on 2 November. A mid-day report on 3 November stated that 38 pyroclastic flows occurred during the first 12 hours of the day. An observer from the Kaliurang post saw 19 of those 38 flows travel 4 km S. Plumes from the pyroclastic flows rose 1.2 km, although dense fog made visual observations difficult. Ashfall was noted in some nearby areas. [GVP: Merapi]
Piton de la Fournaise (Réunion Island). OVPDLF reported that an eruption from Piton de la Fournaise that began on 14 October from a fissure near the Château Fort crater, about 1.5 km SE of the Dolomieu crater rim, continued during 27-30 October. On 27 October steam plumes rose from the main vent (Cone 3) and lava flows were active. A sudden increase in tremor intensity was detected. The next day material was ejected from Cone 3, along with gas and steam. A small lava lake was observed in the cone, and lava flows continued to be active on the field. Tremor slightly decreased, and then significantly decreased on 29-30 October. No further tremor was recorded on 31 October and OVPDLF stated that the eruption had stopped. [GVP: Piton de la Fournaise]
Planchón-Peteroa (Chile). SERNAGEOMIN reported that during 15-25 October seismic activity from Planchón-Peteroa was low. Observations based on images from a camera installed in the town of Romeral (approximately 60 km NW) and photos sent by staff from a mining company (65 km WNW) showed that plume color changed from gray to white on 13 October. The plume was smaller, with heights of less than 200 m above the crater. Satellite imagery analyses corroborated the ground-based observations. On 27 October, the Alert Level was lowered to 3, Yellow. [GVP: Planchón-Peteroa]
Shiveluch (Russia). KVERT reported that seismic activity from Shiveluch began to increase on 27 October. The magnitude of volcanic tremor then sharply increased on 28 October, indicating a strong explosive eruption. Cloud cover prevented observations of the volcano, but ash plumes possibly rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. Ash fell in Ust-Kamchatsk, 85 km SE, a few hours later. The road from Ust-Kamchatsk to Kliuchi, 50 km SW, closed due to poor visibility and darkness. Satellite images indicated that the ash plume rose to an altitude of 12 km (39,400 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. The Aviation Color Code level was raised to Red. According to news articles, ash from Shiveluch and Kliuchevskoi caused area flight diversions. On 29 October satellite imagery showed the ash plume drifting 2,500 km E; ash continued to fall in Ust-Kamchatsk. Ash explosions continued on 30 October. Seismic data suggested that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 10 km (32,800 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. The Aviation Color Code level was lowered to Orange. Based on analyses of satellite imagery and information from KVERT, the Tokyo VAAC reported that possible eruptions on 31 October and during 1-2 November produced ash plumes that rose to altitudes of 3.7-6.7 km (12,000-22,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE and E. Subsequent notices on 31 October and 1 November stated that ash had dissipated. [GVP: Shiveluch]
Dukono (Russia). Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that during 1-2 November ash plumes from Dukono rose to an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 45-75 km NW and SW. [GVP: Dukono]
Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland). According to a news article from 27 October, a scientist at the University of Iceland Institute of Earth Sciences noted that the eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, that began as a fissure eruption on 20 March 2010 and later continued from the summit caldera on 14 April, was over. Ash was last seen rising from the caldera in June. [GVP: Eyjafjallajökull]
Fuego (Guatemala). During 28-29 October, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Fuego produced ash plumes that rose 300-600 m above the crater. Incandescent material was ejected 75 m above the crater, and rumbling and degassing sounds were occasionally heard. Avalanches descended the W flank. On 18 October, ashfall was reported in Sangre de Cristo, 10 km WSW. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 31 October an ash cloud was detected up to 20 km W of Fuego. [GVP: Fuego]
Karymsky (Russia). KVERT reported that seismic activity from Karymsky was above background levels during 21-23 October and at background levels during 24-29 October. Satellite imagery showed a thermal anomaly over the volcano during 22-25 October and an ash plume that drifted 40 km E on 23 October. The Aviation Colour Code level remained at Orange. [GVP: Karymsky]
Kilauea (Alaska, USA). During 27 October-2 November, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema’uma’u crater remained mostly stable between 160 and 170 m below the crater floor. Periodically the lava rose a few meters above that level, producing nighttime incandescence seen from the Jaggar Museum, on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted SW and deposited ash nearby. At the east rift zone, lava continued to flow through the TEB lava-tube system and fed two ocean entries at the Puhi-o-Kalaikini delta. On 27 October a small lava flow broke out of the lava tube and was active W of the end of Highway 130. A channelized ‘a’a lava flow at the base of the pali began the next day. Lava flows were active on the coastal plain during 29-30 October and 1-2 November. Incandescence was frequently visible from vents on the N part of the Pu’u ‘O’o crater floor. [GVP: Kilauea]
Manam (Papua New Guinea). Based on analysis of satellite imagery and pilot observations, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 28 October an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted about 95 km NW. [GVP: Manam]
Pagan (Mariana Islands). Low-level gas-and-steam plumes from Pagan were observed in satellite imagery during 24 and 26-27 October. The Aviation Color Code remained at Yellow and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Advisory. Pagan is not monitored with ground-based geophysical instrumentation; the only source of information is satellite observation and occasional reports from observers who visit the island. [GVP: Pagan]
Sakura-jima (Japan). Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported that an eruption from Sakura-jima on 31 October produced a plume that rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted NE. On 2 November a pilot reported that an ash plume rose to an altitude of 1.5 km (6,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted SE. [GVP: Sakura-jima]
Sangay (Ecuador). The Washington VAAC reported that on 29 October a thermal anomaly from Sangay was seen in satellite imagery. A narrow steam-and-gas plume possibly containing some ash was also detected. [GVP: Sangay]
Santa María (Guatemala). INSIVUMEH reported that on 29 October an explosion from Santa María’s Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 900 m above Caliente dome and drifted SW. A weak pyroclastic flow from the lava dome traveled down the SE flank. Ashfall was reported in the Finca La Florida (5 km S), and Palajunoj and San José on the SW flank. Based on analyses of satellite imagery, the Washington VAAC reported that on 31 October an ash cloud drifted W. [GVP: Santa María]
Suwanose-jima (Japan). Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 26 October. [GVP: Suwanose-jima]
Villarrica (Chile). Based on Significant Meteorological Information (SIGMET) advisories and web camera views, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that during 1-2 November ash plumes from Villarrica rose to altitudes of 3.7-4.6 km (12,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted N, NE, E, and ESE. Ash was not detected on satellite imagery. On 2 November a steam-and-gas plume drifted NE. [GVP: Villarrica]
The foregoing is a summary of the Smithsonian Institution/United States Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report covering 27 October – 2 November 2010. It is provided for information only, and is based on but not a substitute for the full report, which comes with its own criteria and disclaimers. The map base is derived from the Smithsonian Institution/USGS/US Naval Research Laboratory This Dynamic Planet website.
For all our coverage of the SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Reports: Weekly Volcanic Activity Reports « The Volcanism Blog.