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SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report, 20-26 October 2010 29 October 2010

Posted by admin in activity reports, Chaitén, Chile, eruptions, Fuego, Guatemala, Hawaii, Indian Ocean, Indonesia, Japan, Kamchatka, Karymsky, Kilauea, Kliuchevskoi, Manam, Merapi, Pacaya, Papua New Guinea, Piton de la Fournaise, Russia, Sakura-jima, Santa María, Shiveluch, Suwanose-jima, United States, Villarrica, Weekly Volcanic Activity Reports.
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The Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for 20-26 October 2010 is compiled by Sally Kuhn Kennert and published by the Global Volcanism Program. It’s been a volcanically lively week. Some selected highlights:

  • Kliuchevskoi: explosive activity
  • Merapi: an explosive eruption brings evacuations and fatalities
  • Piton de la Fournaise: eruptive activity continues

SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 20-26 October 2010

Click on the map for a larger version (1280 x 898 pixels).

The Smithsonian Institution/United States Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for 20-26 October 2010 is now available on the Global Volcanism Program website. The following is a summary and not a substitute for the full report.

New activity/unrest: Kliuchevskoi (Russia), Merapi (Indonesia), Piton de la Fournaise (Réunion Island).

Ongoing activity: Chaitén (Chile), Fuego (Guatemala), Karymsky (Russia), Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Manam (Papua New Guinea), Pacaya (Guatemala), Sakura-jima (Japan), Santa María (Guatemala), Shiveluch (Russia), Suwanose-jima (Japan), Villarrica (Chile).

Kliuchevskoi (Russia). KVERT reported that during 15-22 October seismic activity from Kliuchevskoi was above background levels and two lava flows from the summit crater traveled down the SW and W flanks. Satellite imagery analyses showed a large and intense daily thermal anomaly over the volcano and ash plumes that drifted 420 km E and SE. Strombolian activity, observed every day, ejected material 250 m above the crater. Ash plumes rose to an altitude of 7.5 km (24,600 ft) a.s.l. during 20-21 October and to an altitude of 6.5 km (21,300 ft) a.s.l. on the other days during 15-22 October. The Aviation Colour Code level remained at Orange. [GVP: Kliuchevskoi]

Merapi (Indonesia) CVGHM reported that from the end of September to 20 October the rate of inflation at Merapi was 0.6 cm per day. On 21 October the rate increased to 10.5 cm per day, and incidents of incandescence from the lava dome increased. CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 3 (on a scale of 1-4). The rate of inflation increased sharply on 24 October to a rate of 42 cm per day. The next day, CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 4, and recommended immediate evacuation for several communities (news reports estimated 11,000-19,000 people) within a 10-km radius. An eruption began at about 1700 on 26 October that was characterized by explosions along with pyroclastic flows that traveled WSW and SE. CVGHM reported that multiple pyroclastic flows occurred until 1854, when the pyroclastic flow activity started to subside. Most of the pyroclastic flows lasted 2 to 9 minutes, except for two that lasted 33 minutes each. Booming noises were heard, and incandescence from the crater was seen from the Selo observation post to the N. An ash plume was also observed rising 1.5 km above the crater. According to news articles, officials noted that about 15,000 people had not yet evacuated, even though several minor eruptions had already occurred prior to 26 October. Reports on 27 October noted that about 25 people died and several were injured. [GVP: Merapi]

Piton de la Fournaise (Réunion Island). OVPDLF reported that an eruption from Piton de la Fournaise that began on 14 October from a fissure near the Château Fort crater, about 1.5 km SE of the Dolomieu crater rim, continued during 19-25 October. On 19 October, explosive and degassing activity from vents along the fissure increased, but was still below the intensity noted at the beginning of the eruption. During 20-21 October small lava fountains fed lava flows that traveled as far as 2 km E and SE. Decreased gas emissions were concentrated to the S and W of the fissure. During 22-24 October fountains and gas emissions originated from one vent, and lava traveled ESE. Gas emissions decreased significantly. [GVP: Piton de la Fournaise]

ONGOING ACTIVITY

Chaitén (Russia). Based on analyses of web camera footage, the Buenos Aires VAAC reported that an ash plume from Chaitén’s lava-dome complex rose to an altitude of 2.1 km (7,000 ft) a.s.l. The report also noted a plume drifting ENE. [GVP: Chaitén]

Fuego (Guatemala). During 21-22 and 26 October, INSIVUMEH reported that explosions from Fuego produced ash plumes that rose 500-700 m above the SW crater. Rumbling and degassing sounds were occasionally heard, and incandescence was observed at night. Block avalanches occurred on the flanks. On 26 October, ash plumes drifted N and NW, and incandescent material was ejected 75 m above the crater. [GVP: Fuego]

Karymsky (Russia). KVERT reported that seismic activity from Karymsky was above background levels during 15-22 October, suggesting that possible ash plumes rose to altitudes of 2-4 km (6,600-13,100 ft) a.s.l. Volcanologists working at Karymsky observed Strombolian activity at night, along with ash plumes during 14-16 October that rose to altitudes of 2.5-3 km (8,200-10,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted E. A thermal anomaly was seen in satellite imagery during 15-16 and 18-19 October. The Aviation Colour Code level remained at Orange. [GVP: Karymsky]

Kilauea (Alaska, USA). During 20-26 October, HVO reported that activity at Kilauea continued from the summit caldera and the east rift zone. At the summit caldera, the level of the lava-pool surface in the deep pit within Halema’uma’u crater remained mostly stable; periodically the lava rose above that level, producing nighttime incandescence seen from the Jaggar Museum, on the NW caldera rim. A plume from the vent drifted mainly SW. At the east rift zone, lava that flowed through the TEB lava-tube system fed at least one ocean entry at the Puhi-o-Kalaikini delta. Small surface flows on the coastal plain and pali were visible during 20-22 October. A vent on the N part of the Pu’u ‘O’o crater floor ejected spatter on 20 October. Incandescence was visible from the vent the next day and from multiple vents during 22-23 October. [GVP: Kilauea]

Manam (Papua New Guinea). Based on analysis of satellite imagery, the Darwin VAAC reported that on 22 October an ash plume from Manam rose to an altitude of 4.3 km (14,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 130 km NW. A subsequent notice stated that the ash plume had dissipated. [GVP: Manam]

Pacaya (Guatemala). During 21-22 and 26 October, INSIVUMEH reported Strombolian explosions originating from Pacaya’s MacKenney crater, although the explosions were not visually observed. [GVP: Pacaya]

Sakura-jima (Japan). Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported an explosion from Sakura-jima on 20 October. [GVP: Sakura-jima]

Santa María (Guatemala). INSIVUMEH reported that on 22 October explosions from Santa María’s Santiaguito lava dome complex produced ash plumes that rose 300 m above Caliente dome and drifted SW. Block avalanches traveled down the S and SW flanks. On 26 October steam plumes rose 150 m above the crater. [GVP: Santa María]

Shiveluch (Russia). KVERT reported that seismic activity from Shiveluch was above background levels during 14-16 October and at background levels during 17-22 October. Seismic data on 14 October suggested that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.8 km (12,500 ft) a.s.l. Satellite imagery analyses showed a daily thermal anomaly on the volcano and ash plumes that drifted 72 km SE on 15 and 16 October. Gas-and-steam plumes sometimes containing ash were observed during 15-18 October. The Aviation Colour Code level remained at Orange. [GVP: Shiveluch]

Suwanose-jima (Japan). Based on information from JMA, the Tokyo VAAC reported explosions from Suwanose-jima on 26 October. [GVP: Suwanose-jima]

Villarrica (Chile) According to the Projecto Observación Visual Volcán Villarrica (POVI), a series of images of Villarrica captured from a web camera on 24 October showed an ash cloud rising from the crater. [GVP: Villarrica]

The foregoing is a summary of the Smithsonian Institution/United States Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report covering 20-26 October 2010. It is provided for information only, and is based on but not a substitute for the full report, which comes with its own criteria and disclaimers. The map base is derived from the Smithsonian Institution/USGS/US Naval Research Laboratory This Dynamic Planet website.

For all our coverage of the SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Reports: Weekly Volcanic Activity Reports « The Volcanism Blog.

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