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SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 28 October – 3 November 2009 5 November 2009

Posted by admin in activity reports, Barren Island, Caribbean, Chaitén, Chile, Colombia, Dukono, Ebeko, eruptions, Galeras, Hawaii, India, Indian Ocean, Indonesia, Japan, Kamchatka, Karangetang, Karymsky, Kilauea, Kliuchevskoi, Krakatau, Manam, Mexico, Nevado del Huila, Papua New Guinea, Popocatépetl, Rabaul, Sakura-jima, Shiveluch, Soufrière Hills, Suwanose-jima, United States, Weekly Volcanic Activity Reports.
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SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Report 28 October - 3 November 2009

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The Smithsonian Institution/United States Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report for 28 October – 3 November 2009 is available on the Global Volcanism Program website. The following is a summary and not a substitute for the full report.

New activity/unrest: Ebeko (Russia), Galeras (Colombia), Karangetang [Api Siau] (Indonesia), Manam (Papua New Guinea), Nevado del Huila (Colombia), Soufrière Hills (Montserrat).

Ongoing activity: Barren Island (India), Chaitén (Chile), Dukono (Indonesia), Karymsky (Russia), Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Kliuchevskoi (Russia), Krakatau (Indonesia), Popocatépetl (Mexico), Rabaul (Papua New Guinea), Sakura-jima (Japan), Shiveluch (Russia), Suwanose-jima (Japan).

Note: a.s.l. = ‘above sea level’.

NEW ACTIVITY/ UNREST

Ebeko (Russia). A gas-and-steam plume rising 300 m above the crater and drifting 1-2 km NNE was seen on 26 October. No evidence of ash deposits was seen on the snow cover. Gas-and-steam plumes rose 250 m above the crater and drifted 2 km E on 28 October and NNE on 29 October. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Green.

Galeras (Colombia). INGEOMINAS raised the Alert Level to the second-highest level of Orange (‘eruption probable within days or weeks’) on 30 October. Degassing decreased and seismicity increased from 27 October, reflecting conditions seen prior to previous eruptions. Gas emissions were reported to have been low during the days preceding 3 November, and seismicity had decreased on that day.

Karangetang [Api Siau] (Indonesia). Based on a pilot observation and analyses of satellite imagery, Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume to 3 km a.s.l. and drifted 90-185 km W on 3 November.

Manam (Papua New Guinea). Based on analyses of satellite imagery, Darwin VAAC reported ash plumes to 2.1 km a.s.l. that drifted 35-55 km NW during 1-2 November.

Nevado del Huila (Colombia). INGEOMINAS reported that on 28 October a pulse of tremor was followed by an ash plume that rose to 8.3 km a.s.l. Overflights on 30 October and 2 November revealed a high rate of lava dome growth compared to the previous observation on 23 October. An ash layer covered the W part of Pico Central. Continuous and intense degassing originated from areas where thermal anomalies were detected, and resulting gas plumes drifted NW. The volume estimate for the new lava dome was nearly 9 million
cubic metres. On 31 October an ash plume, observed through satellite imagery, pilot observations, and web camera views, was reported drifting 65 km S. During 31 October-2 November, thermal anomalies were detected on satellite imagery. On 2 November, a small plume seen on the web camera drifted SE. Gas plumes, occasionally accompanied by ash plumes, drifted 35 km SE. On 3 November INGEOMINAS reported that a pulse of tremor was followed by an ash plume that rose to 11.3 km a.s.l. and drifted SW, and ashfall was reported in communities downwind. Another ash plume rose to below 6.7 km a.s.l. and drifted E. Collapses from the W side of the dome generating small pyroclastic flows and incandescence were observed from Mosoco (20 km SSW).

Soufrière Hills (Montserrat). During 23-30 October seismic activity was at a slightly lower level that the previous week. Numerous pyroclastic flows occurred in most of the major drainage valleys and rockfalls were concentrated in the S. Heavy rainfall caused lahars in the Belham Valley to the W. On 28 October two pyroclastic flows traveled 2 km W down Gages Valley. On 29
October a 40-m-high spine was seen protruding from the summit. Changes in lava-dome morphology seen on 30 October, and occurrences of pyroclastic flows traveling NE, indicated that growth was concentrated in the central part of the lava dome. The Hazard Level remained at 3.

ONGOING ACTIVITY

Barren Island (India). Darwin VAAC reported an ash plume rose to 1.8 km a.s.l. and drifted about 55-75 km W on 1 November.

Chaitén (Chile). Buenos Aires VAAC reported a diffuse ash plume possibly mixed with steam and gas rose from the lava dome complex and drifted SSE on 30 October. On 1 November a plume drifted 20 km W.

Dukono (Indonesia). Darwin VAAC reported that an ash plume rose to 1.5 km a.s.l. and drifted 35-110 km NE and N on 31 October.

Karymsky (Russia). Seismic activity was above background levels during 23-27 and 30 October, a possible indication that ash plumes rose to an altitude of 3.7 km a.s.l. No seismic data was available on 22 and 28 October. Analyses of satellite imagery revealed an ash plume that drifted 120 km E on 23 October, and a thermal anomaly during 23-26 and 29 October. The Level of Concern Color Code remained at Orange.

Kilauea (Hawaii, USA). During 21-27 October lava flowed SE from underneath the Thanksgiving Eve Breakout (TEB) and rootless shield complex through a lava tube system to reach the Waikupanaha ocean entry. Lava began entering the ocean at a second location 700 m to the W on 31 October. Thermal anomalies detected in satellite images and visual observations revealed active surface lava flows. Breakout lava flows were located inland of the Waikpuanaha entry and also
immediately W of the County Public Viewing trail. Intermittent incandescence was seen from the Pu’u ‘O’o crater floor and an East wall vent. The Halema’uma’u crater vent continued to produce a diffuse white plume that drifted SW. Incandescence originated from occasionally spattering holes from a surface inside the vent cavity. On 3 November a collapse of the surface revealed a circulating and spattering lava pond below. Preliminary measurements indicated that the sulphur dioxide emission rate at the summit remained elevated: 800 tonnes/day was measured on 30 October (2003-2007 average rate = 140 tonnes/day).

Kliuchevskoi (Russia). During 23-30 October seismic activity was above background levels. Tremor increased on 26 October. Strombolian activity ejected tephra 200 m above the crater and fumarolic activity was occasionally noted. Satellite imagery revealed a daily thermal anomaly. The Level of Concern
Color Code remained at Orange.

Krakatau (Indonesia). Between August and 29 October seismicity and the occurrence of eruption plumes decreased. The Alert Level was lowered to 2 (on a scale of 1-4).

Popocatépetl (Mexico). A small explosive event on 29 October produced an ash plume that rose to 6.4 km a.s.l.

Rabaul (Papua New Guinea). During 28-29 October Darwin VAAC reported that ash plumes from Tavurvur cone rose to 2.4 km a.s.l. and drifted 35-45 km N, E, and SE.

Sakura-jima (Japan). Tokyo VAAC reported that during 28 October-3 November explosions produced plumes to 1.2-2.7 km a.s.l. Some plumes drifted W, SW, S, SE, and NE.

Shiveluch (Russia). During 23-30 October seismic activity was above background levels, possibly indicating ash plumes to 3.7 km a.s.l. On 29 October ash plumes possibly rose to 6.9 km a.s.l. Fumarolic activity was occasionally seen. Analyses of satellite imagery revealed a large thermal anomaly over the lava dome during 22-27 October and an ash plume that drifted 24 km NE on 26 October. Tokyo VAAC reported an eruption on 30 October that produced a plume to 7 km a.s.l. Later that day a possible eruption plume rose to 6.1 km a.s.l. An eruption on 1 November produced a plume to 4.9 km a.s.l.

Suwanose-jima (Japan). Tokyo VAAC reported explosions on 30 October and 2 November, without details of possible resulting emissions.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS AND DISCLAIMER

The foregoing is a summary of the Smithsonian Institution/United States Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report covering 28 October to 3 November 2009. It is provided for information only, and is based on but not a substitute for the full report, which comes with its own criteria and disclaimers. The map base is derived from the Smithsonian Institution/USGS/US Naval Research Laboratory This Dynamic Planet website.

For all our coverage of the SI/USGS Weekly Volcanic Activity Reports: Weekly Volcanic Activity Reports « The Volcanism Blog.

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